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香港之海岸防衛炮台

蕭國健

甲、前言

英人初佔香港島時,即於島上北岸建築炮台,用以鞏衛軍營,防禦海盜,保護港灣內之船隻。

乙、開埠初期之城堡式炮台

開埠最初建築之炮台,名美莉炮台(Murray Battery),1845年建成,位於中區皇后大道中與雪廠街交界之高台上1,其位置能作較廣視野,並握居高臨下之優勢。

炮台呈方形,以花崗岩石砌成,台基自低向高傾斜,頂部西、北兩面外向,上建}牆,高四呎餘,厚六呎餘,可禦炮彈轟擊,炮置}耳間。東面開門,南面為山崖,火藥室位東南角2

台上安船炮或野戰炮六門,及臼炮三門。其後改置較大火炮五門,及臼炮四門3

丙、開埠初期之海岸炮台

十九世界中葉,為加強防衛,遂於海濱加建炮台。位美莉軍營北面海濱,建皇家炮台(Royal Battery);位今灣仔警察總部,有威靈頓炮台(Wellington Battery);西環舊國家醫院處,置西環炮台(West Point Battery);又於灣仔對開海面奇力島上,設置奇力島炮台(Kellet Island Battery)4

西環炮台為以艾遮平房(Edger's Bungalow)改建5,其餘三炮台皆位海濱平地。惜無記錄可尋,形制及裝置無法考証。惟觀其時英屬地區所建於濱海之炮台,皆為以當地出產之石塊及泥土堆砌護牆,呈方形,炮置牆後,火藥室位炮台後方6;想其時,香港所置之濱海炮台亦類同。

丁、十九世紀末之明炮台及地阱暗炮台

十九世紀末,較新式之火炮發明,射程大增,破壞力加強,故有較新式之明炮台建築。其時之炮台皆建於較高之山麓,分炮位及營房兩部份。炮位為露天炮地,基座為石條砌成,炮位三面牆壁以三合土建築,牆壁內有子彈庫及炮手掩蔽站。基座上置旋轉炮架,架上置炮,炮可於炮架上前後移動,方便發射時後座移動,及裝上炮彈。

炮台為兩炮位組成,中有隔堆,當炮台被命中時,不會同時毀壞兩炮位。隔堆有空心及實心兩種,實心堆為一土堆,而空心堆及炮位下為火藥庫,深藏地下,可避免敵人炮火擊毀。炮位背後有營房,內設休息室、電話室、及各種貯物室7

其時,境內亦建有地阱暗炮台。此種炮台為一圓形挖深之地井,井內置自動升降炮架,炮置架上,稱地阱炮(Disappearing Guns)。發炮時,先將炮架降下,裝上炮彈,搖動輪機使炮上升,經旋轉高低瞄準後發射;射擊後,利用炮之後座力,使炮落下。從遠處觀望,難於看見炮位,故可收突擊轟敵之效。

炮台亦以兩炮位組成,中設隔堆,下有暗道相連。暗道內有火藥庫、子彈庫、兵房等設施,甚為完備8

戊、二十世紀之炮台

二十世紀初,武器較前進步,飛機之發明,使地面之軍事設施失去優勢。其時,西方國家多已放棄建築炮台,改建碉堡,惟香港因未受戰爭影響,故軍事設施失去優勢。三十年代前所建之炮台,其形制仍如前時之明炮台,只基座牆壁較厚,地下火藥庫較深,炮座及火炮較前新式9

三十年代末期,日軍入侵之威脅日增,急需建炮台,增強防衛。其時所建之炮台,因建築倉卒,規範簡陋。這些臨時炮台(Improvised Batteries)之炮座,只為一平台基,旁有火藥庫、子彈庫及兵房等建築10

此外,前時建成之炮台,亦依新式火炮裝置之需要,加以改裝11,部份未能改裝者,則被放棄。

己、尾聲

1945年和平後,英國軍部以炮台之設置已不合時宜,加以香港自由貿易港之發展,無需發展軍防,舊有之炮台亦因設備落後,故被棄置。如今,前時建築之炮台,除用作文娛用途外,多被荒廢,遺蹟殘存。

1   On the western slopes of the Peak, off Hatton Road, the emplacements are well preserved in a picnic area.
2   Position Finder.
3   His Excellency The Governor.
4   Possibly Telegraph Bay in front of Baguio Villas, Pokfulam.
5   Just below Pokfulam Road, near the University.
6   This is probably the battery in what is now Kowloon Park, west to the Museum of History.
7   Shenzhen.
8   Fung Shui woods.
9   Yuen Long.
10   Tai Mo Shan, the territory's highest peak.
11   Hakka women.
12   Butterfield and Swire.
2004| Important notices | Privacy policy Last revision date: 23 January, 2014
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